35986841_10216840653711318_1105697261150535680_n

Clinical practice of the dental hygienist

By: Wilkins, Esther M
Material type: TextTextPublisher: Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, c2009Edition: 10th edDescription: xviii, 1197 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 29 cm. + 1 CD-ROM (4 3/4 in.)ISBN: 9780781763226 (alk. paper); 0781763223 (alk. paper)Other title: Dental hygienistSubject(s): Dental hygiene | Dental Prophylaxis -- Outlines | Dental Hygienists -- OutlinesDDC classification: 617.601 LOC classification: RK60.5 | .W5 2009
Contents:
Section 1: Orientation To Clinical Dental Hygiene Practice -- 1: Professional dental hygienist -- Roles of dental hygiene -- Dental hygiene care -- Types of services -- Dental hygiene process of care -- Cultural considerations -- Dental hygiene ethics -- Code of ethics -- Core values -- Ethical applications -- Legal factors in practice -- Personal factors in practice -- Special practice areas -- Objectives for professional practice -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 2: Preparation For Dental Hygiene Practice -- 2: Infection control: transmissible diseases -- Standard precautions -- Microorganisms of the oral cavity -- Infectious process -- Airborne infection -- Pathogens transmissible by the oral cavity -- Tuberculosis -- Viral hepatitis -- Hepatitis A -- Hepatitis B -- Prevention of hepatitis B -- Hepatitis C -- Hepatitis D -- Hepatitis E -- Herpesvirus diseases -- HHVI herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSVI) -- HHV2 herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) -- Clinical management -- HHV3 varicella-zoster virus (VZV) -- HHV4 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -- HHV5 cytomegalovirus (HCMV) -- HHV6 herpes lymphotrophic virus (HLV) -- HHV7 human herpes virus 7 (HHV7) -- HHV8 Kapsi's sarcoma related virus (KSRV) -- HIV-1 infection -- Life cycle of the HIV-1-- HIV-1 classification system for adolescents and adults -- Clinical course of HIV-1 infection -- Oral manifestations of HIV-1 infection -- HIV-1 infection in children -- Prevention of HIV-1 infection -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 3: Exposure control: barriers for patient and clinician -- Personal protection of the dental team -- Immunizations and periodic tests -- Clinical attire -- Use of face mask: respiratory protection -- Use of protective eyewear -- Hand care -- Handwashing principles -- Methods of hand washing -- Gloves and gloving -- Latex hypersensitivity -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 4: Infection control: clinical procedures -- Treatment room features -- Instrument processing center -- Cleaning procedures -- Packaging step -- Sterilization -- Moist heat: steam under pressure -- Dry heat -- Chemical vapor sterilizer -- Care of sterile instruments -- Chemical disinfectants -- Recommended chemical disinfectants -- Chemical sterilants (immersion) -- Preparation of the treatment room -- Patient preparation -- Summary of standard procedures for the prevention of disease transmission -- Occupational accidental exposure management -- Disposal of waste -- Supplemental recommendations -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 5: Patient reception and ergonomic practice -- Position of the patient -- Position of the clinician -- Neutral working posture -- Treatment area -- Ergonomic practice -- Self-care for the dental hygienist -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Suggested readings -- Section 3: Assessment -- 6: Documentation -- Patient record -- Privacy of patient records -- Examination procedures -- Tooth numbering systems -- Charting -- Dental records -- Periodontal records -- Care plan records -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 7: Personal, dental, and medical histories -- History preparation -- Questionnaire -- Interview -- Items included in the history -- Immediate applications of patient histories -- American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines -- Prophylaxis for dental and dental hygiene procedures -- ASA determination -- Review of history -- Records -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 8: Vital signs -- Body temperature -- Pulse -- Respiration -- Blood pressure -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 9: Dental radiographic imaging -- How X-Rays are produced -- Digital radiography -- Characteristics of an acceptable radiographic image -- Factors that influence the finished radiograph -- Exposure to radiation -- Risk of injury from radiation -- Rules for radiation protection -- Protection of clinician -- Protection of patient -- Clinical applications -- Procedures for film placement and angulation of ray -- Film selection for intraoral surveys -- Definitions and principles -- Periapical survey: paralleling technique -- Bitewing survey -- Peripical survey: bisecting-angle technique -- Occlusal survey -- Panoramic radiographic images -- Paraclinical procedures -- Infection control -- Film processing -- Essentials of an adequate darkroom -- Lighting -- Automated processing -- Manual processing -- Analysis of completed radiographs -- Record keeping -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 10: Extraoral and intraoral examination -- Objectives -- Components of examination -- Sequence of examination -- Documentation of findings -- Morphologic categories -- Oral cancer -- Procedure for follow-up of a suspicious lesion -- Exfoliative cytology -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 11: Study casts -- Clinical preparation -- Interocclusal record -- Preparation of impression trays -- Impression material -- Mandibular impression -- Maxillary impression -- Disinfection of impressions -- Paraclinical procedures -- Mixing the stone -- Pouring the cast -- Trimming the casts -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings --
12: Gingiva -- Objectives -- Treatment area -- Gingiva and related structures -- Recognition of gingival and periodontal infections -- Gingival examination -- Gingiva of young children -- Gingiva after periodontal surgery -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 13: Examination instruments and procedures -- Mouth mirror -- Instruments for application of air -- Probe -- Guide to probing -- Probing procedures -- Clinical attachment level -- Furcation examination -- Mucogingival examination -- Basic procedures for use of explorers -- Explorers: Supragingival procedures -- Explorers: Subgingival procedures -- Record findings -- Mobility examination -- Fremitus -- Radiographic examination -- Radiographic changes in periodontal infections -- Early periodontal disease -- Other radiographic findings -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested reading -- 14: Periodontal disease development -- Development of gingival and periodontal infections -- Gingival and periodontal pockets -- Tooth surface pocket wall -- Complications of pocket formation -- Local contributing factors in disease development -- Self cleansing mechanisms -- Risk factors for periodontal diseases -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested reading -- 15: Teeth -- Dentitions -- Dental caries -- Enamel caries -- Early childhood caries -- Root caries -- Noncarious dental lesions -- Enamel hypoplasia -- Attrition -- Erosion -- Abrasion -- Fractures of teeth -- Clinical examination of the teeth -- Recognition of carious lesions -- Testing for pulpal vitality -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 16: Occlusion -- Static occlusion -- Determination of the classification of malocclusion -- Occlusion of the primary teeth -- Functional occlusion -- Trauma from occlusion -- Recommendations for the patient with orthodontic needs -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 17: Dental biofilm and other soft deposits -- Acquired pellicle -- Dental biofilm -- Composition of dental biofilm -- Clinical aspects -- Significance of dental biofim -- Dental caries -- Effect of diet on biofilm -- Periodontal infections -- Materia Alba -- Food debris -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 18: Calculus -- Classification and distribution of calculus -- Composition -- Calculus formation -- Attachment of calculus -- Significance of dental calculus -- Clinical characteristics -- Prevention of calculus -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 19: Dental stains and discolorations -- Significance -- Extrinsic stains -- Endogenous intrinsic stains -- Exogenous intrinsic stains -- Records -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 20: Indices and scoring methods -- Types of scoring methods -- Indices that measure oral hygiene status -- Indices that measure gingical and periodontal health -- Indices that measure dental caries experience -- Indices that measure dental fluorosis -- Indices useful for community-based oral health surveillance -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 4: Dental Hygiene Diagnosis Care Planning -- 21: Planning for dental hygiene care -- Assessment findings -- Periodontal diagnosis -- Dental hygiene diagnosis -- Dental hygiene prognosis -- Considerations for providing care -- Dental hygiene care plan -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 22: Dental hygiene care plan -- Preparation of a dental hygiene care plan -- Components of a written care plan -- Sequencing and prioritizing patient care -- Presenting the dental hygiene care plan -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 5: Prevention -- 23: Health promotion and disease prevention -- Steps in a preventive program -- Patient counseling -- Motivation -- Learning process -- Individual patient planning -- Presentation, demonstration, practice -- Preschool child -- Teaching system -- Evaluation of teaching aids -- Use of disclosing agents -- Technical hints for disclosing agents -- Xerostomia -- Halitosis -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 24: Protocols for prevention and control of dental caries -- Dental caries diagnosis and detection -- Selective care planning -- Protocol for remineralization -- Maintenance care planning -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 25: Oral infection control: toothbrushes and toothbrushing -- Development of toothbrushes -- Manual toothbrushes -- Toothbrush selection for the patient -- Guidelines for manual toothbrushing -- Methods for manual toothbrushing -- Bass method: sulcular brushing -- Roll or rolling stroke method -- Stillman method -- Modified Stillman -- Charters method -- Other toothbrushing methods -- Power toothbrushes -- Supplemental brushing -- Toothbrushing for special conditions -- Effects of toothbrushing -- Care of toothbrushes -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 26: Interdental care -- Interdental area -- Planning interdental care -- Selective interdental biofilm removal -- Dental floss and tape -- Tufted dental floss -- Knitting yarn -- Gauze strip -- Interdental brushes -- Single-tuft brush (end-tuft, unituft) -- Interdental tip -- Toothpick in holder -- Wooden interdental cleaner -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings --
27: Dentifrices, mouth rinses, and irrigation -- Chemotherapeutics -- Dentifrices -- Preventive and therapeutic benefits of dentifrices -- Cosmetic effects of dentifrices -- Basic components of dentifrices -- Selection of dentifrice -- Mouth rinses -- Purposes and uses of mouth rinses -- Preventive and therapeutic agents of mouth rinses -- Commercial mouthwash ingredients -- Procedure for rinsing -- Oral irrigation -- Beneficial effects from irrigation -- Description of irrigators -- Delivery methods -- Applications for practice -- Food and Drug Administration (FDA): the regulatory agency for oral care products American Dental Association (ADA) seal of acceptance program -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 28: Patient with orthodontic appliances -- Cemented bands and bonded brackets -- Clinical procedures for bonding -- Dental hygiene care -- Completion of therapy -- Clinical procedures for debanding -- Clinical procedures for debonding -- Post-debonding evaluation -- Retention -- Post-debonding preventive care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 29: Care of dental prostheses -- Missing teeth -- Fixed partial dentures -- Care procedures for fixed prostheses -- Removable partial denture prostheses -- Self care procedures for removable partial prostheses -- Complete denture prostheses -- Self cleaning the complete denture prostheses -- Underlying mucosa -- Complete overdenture prostheses -- Dental hygiene care and instruction -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 30: Patient with dental implants -- Types of dental implants -- Endosseous implant -- Implant interfaces -- Preparation and placement -- Periimplant hygiene -- Maintenance -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 31: Patient who uses tobacco -- Health hazards -- Components of tobacco products -- Metabolism of nicotine -- Systemic effects -- Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) -- Prenatal and children -- Oral manifestations of tobacco use -- Tobacco and periodontal infections -- Nicotine addiction -- Treatment -- Pharmacotherapies used for treatment of nicotine addiction -- Nicotine-free therapy -- Dental hygiene care for the patient who uses tobacco assessment -- Clinical treatment procedures -- Tobacco cessation program -- 5 A's -- Team approach -- Advocacy -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 32: Diet and dietary analysis -- Nutrient standards for diet adequacy in health promotion -- Oral health relationships -- Dietary assessment -- Preparation for additional counseling -- Counseling procedures -- Evaluation of progress -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 33: Fluorides -- Fluoride metabolism -- Fluoride and tooth development -- Tooth surface fluoride -- Demineralization-remineralization -- Fluoridation -- Effects and benefits of fluoridation -- Partial defluoridation -- School fluoridation -- Discontinued fluoridation -- Fluorides in foods -- Dietary fluoride supplements -- Clinical procedures professional topical fluoride -- Self-applied fluorides -- Tray technique: home application -- Fluoride mouthrinses -- Brush-on gel -- Fluoride dentifrices -- Combined fluoride program -- Fluoride safety -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 34: Sealants -- Development of sealants -- How sealants work -- Sealant materials -- Indications for sealant placement -- Clinical procedures -- Penetration of sealant -- Maintenance -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 6: Treatment -- 35: Anxiety and pain control -- Components of pain -- Nonopioid analgesics -- Nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation -- Characteristics of nitrous oxide -- Equipment for nitrous oxide-oxygen -- Patient selection -- Clinical procedures for nitrous oxide-oxygen administration -- Potential hazards of occupational exposure -- Advantages and disadvantages of conscious sedation anesthesia -- Local anesthesia -- Pharmacology of local anesthetics -- Indications for local anesthesia -- Patient assessment -- Armamentarium for local anesthesia -- Clinical procedures for local anesthetic administration -- Potential adverse reactions to local anesthesia procedures -- Advantages and disadvantages of local anesthesia -- Noninjectable anesthesia -- Topical anesthesia -- Application of topical anesthetic -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 36: Instruments and principles for instrumentation -- Instrument identification -- Instrument parts -- Instrument features -- Treatment instruments -- Principles for instrument use -- Instrument grasp -- Neutral positions -- Fulcrum: finger rest -- Adaptation -- Angulation -- Lateral pressure -- Activation: stroke -- Visibility and accessibility -- Dexterity development -- Prevention of cumulative trauma -- Instrument sharpening -- Some basic sharpening principles -- Sharpening curets and scalers -- Moving flat stone: stationary instrument -- Stationary flat stone: moving instrument -- Sharpening cone -- Mandrel-mounted stones -- Sharpening the file scaler -- Sharpening the hoe scaler -- Sharpening the chisel scaler -- Sharpening explorers -- Care of sharpening equipment -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings --
37: Nonsurgical periodontal instrumentation -- Scope of nonsurgical therapy -- Preparation of the clinician -- Focus of treatment -- Aims and expected outcomes -- Care plan for instrumentation -- Overall appointment systems -- Preparation for instrumentation -- Calculus removal -- Manual subgingival scaling steps -- Ultrasonic and sonic sealing -- Mode of action -- Ultrasonic scaling devices -- Sonic sealing device -- Purposes and uses of power-driven scalers -- Instrument tip design -- Clinical preparation -- Instrumentation -- Overhanging restorations -- Completion of initial therapy -- Effects of nonsurgical instrumentation -- Follow-up evaluation -- Instrument maintenance -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 38: Nonsurgical periodontal therapy: supplemental care procedures -- Nonsurgical periodontal therapy -- Advanced instrumentation -- Antimicrobial treatment -- Systemic -- Professional subgingival irrigation -- Local delivery of antimicrobials -- Tetracycline fiber -- Doxycycline polymer -- Minocycline hydrochloride -- Chlorhexidine chip -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 39: Acute periodontal conditions -- Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis -- Types of necrotizing periodontal conditions -- Clinical recognition -- Risk factors -- Etiology -- Dental hygience care -- Care for the acute stage -- Periodontal abscess -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 40: Sutures and dressings -- Sutures -- Needles -- Knots -- Procedure for suture removal -- Periodontal dressings -- Types of dressings -- Clinical application -- Dressing removal and replacement -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 41: Dentin hypersensitivity -- Hypersensitivity defined -- Etiology of dentin hypersensitivity -- Natural desensitization -- Patients and their pain -- Differential diagnosis -- Hypersensitivity management -- Oral hygiene care and treatment interventions -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 42: Extrinsic stain removal -- Purpose of stain removal -- Effects of cleaning and polishing -- Precautions -- Indications for stain removal -- Clinical application of selective stain removal -- Cleaning and polishing agents -- Clinical applications -- Procedures for stain removal (coronal polishing) -- Porte polisher -- Power-driven instruments -- Use of the prophylaxis angle -- Polishing proximal surfaces -- Air-powder polishing -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 43: Tooth whitening -- History -- Discolorations/stains -- Types of tooth whitening -- Treatment materials -- Process whitening -- Patient selection -- Patient preparation -- Side effects of whitening -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Evaluation -- Section 7: Evaluation And Maintenance -- 44: Evaluation and maintenance -- Principles of evaluation -- Maintenance -- Maintenance appointment procedures -- Recurrence of periodontal disease -- Administration methods -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 8: Patients With Special Needs -- 45: Pregnant patient -- Fetal development -- Oral findings during pregnancy -- Aspects of patient care -- Dental hygiene care -- Patient instruction -- Special problems for referral -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 46: Pediatric oral health care: infancy through age 5 -- Access to parents by health professionals -- First contact with parent and child -- Risk factors for caries and gingivitis -- Anticipatory guidance for parents, caregivers, and providers -- Oral health considerations for infants -- Oral health considerations for toddlers and preschoolers -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the parents -- References -- Suggested readings -- 47: Patient with a cleft lip and/or palate -- Classification of clefts -- Etiology -- Oral characteristics -- General physical characteristics -- Treatment -- Dental hygiene care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 48: Preadolescent to postmenopausal patients -- Adolescence and puberty -- Oral conditions -- Dental hygiene care -- Menstruation -- Hormonal contraceptives -- Menopause -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 49: Elderly patient -- Aging -- Physiological aging -- Pathology and disease -- Osteoporosis -- Alzheimer's disease -- Oral findings in aging -- Dental hygiene care -- Dental biofilm control -- Periodontal care -- Dental caries control -- Diet and nutrition -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 50: Edentulous patient -- Purposes for wearing dentures -- Types of removable complete dentures -- Edentulous mouth -- Patient with new dentures -- Denture-related oral changes -- Denture-induced oral lesions -- Denture marking for identification -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 51: Oral and maxillofacial surgery patient -- Patient preparation -- Dental hygiene care -- Patient with intermaxillary fixation -- Fractured jaw -- Mandibular fractures -- Midfacial fracture -- Alveolar process fracture -- Dental hygiene care -- Dental hygiene care prior to general surgery -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 52: Patient with cancer -- Description -- Surgery -- Chemotherapy -- Radiation therapy -- Hematopoietic cell transplantation -- Dental hygiene/dental plan of care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Factors to teach the caregiver -- References -- Suggested readings -- 53: Care of patients with disabilities -- Disabilities -- Dental and dental hygiene care -- Appointment scheduling -- Barrier-free environment -- Patient reception: the initial appointment -- Wheelchair transfers -- Patient position stabilization -- Oral manifestations -- Disease prevention and control -- Dental biofilm removal -- Self-care aids -- Instruction for caregiver -- Fluorides -- Pit and fissure sealants -- Diet instruction -- Instrumentation -- Group in-service education -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach patient and caregiver -- References -- Suggested readings --
54: Patient who is homebound -- Homebound patients -- Dental hygiene care and instruction -- Unconscious patient -- Terminally ill patient -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Factors to teach the caregiver -- References -- Suggested readings -- 55: Patient with a physical impairment -- Spinal cord dysfunctions -- Spinal cord injury -- Myelomeningocele -- Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) -- Muscular dystrophies -- Myasthenia Gravis -- Multiple Sclerosis -- Cerebral Palsy -- Bell's Palsy -- Parkinson's disease -- Arthritis -- Scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis) -- Kidney disease -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 56: Patient with a sensory disability -- Americans with Disabilities Act -- Visual impairment -- Hearing impairment -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Reference -- Suggested readings -- 57: Family abuse and neglect -- Child maltreatment -- Elder maltreatment -- Intimate partner abuse and violence -- Documentation -- Reporting maltreatment -- Forensic dentistry -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 58: Patient with a seizure disorder -- Epileptic syndromes -- Clinical manifestations -- Treatment -- Oral findings -- Dental hygiene care plan -- Emergency care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 59: Patient with a mental disability -- Mental retardation -- Down Syndrome -- Autistic spectrum disorder -- Dental hygiene care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Factors to teach the caregiver -- References -- Suggested readings -- 60: Patient with psychiatric disorder -- Schizophrenia -- Mood disorders -- Major depressive disorder -- Bipolar disorder -- Postpartum mood disturbances -- Anxiety disorders -- Eating disorders -- Anorexia Nervosa -- Bulimia Nervosa -- Psychiatric emergencies -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 61: Patient with a substance-related disorder -- Alcohol-related disorders -- Metabolism of alcohol -- Health hazards -- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) -- Alcohol withdrawal syndrome -- Treatment for alcoholism -- Prescription and street drugs -- Most common drugs of abuse -- Treatment methods -- Dental hygiene care -- Clinical examination -- Clinical treatment and instruction -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 62: Patient with a respiratory disease -- Respiratory system -- Upper respiratory tract diseases -- Lower respiratory tract diseases -- Pneumonia -- Tuberculosis (TB) -- Asthma -- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) -- Cystic Fibrosis -- Summary guidelines for dental hygiene care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 63: Patient with a cardiovascular disease -- Classification -- Congenital heart diseases -- Rheumatic heart disease -- Mitral valve prolapse -- Infective endocarditis -- Hypertension -- Hypertensive heart disease -- Ischemic heart disease -- Angina pectoris -- Myocardial infarction -- Congestive heart failure -- Basic noninvasive treatment -- Surgical treatment -- Anticoagulant therapy -- Cardiac surgery -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 64: Patient with a blood disorder -- Oral findings suggestive of blood disorders -- Normal blood -- Anemias -- Iron deficiency anemia -- Megaloblastic anemias -- Sickle cell disease -- Polycythemias -- White blood cells -- Bleeding disorders -- Coagulation disorders -- Miscellaneous treatment suggestions for dental professionals -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 65: Patient with diabetes mellitus -- Diabetes mellitus -- Insulin -- Diabetes mellitus etiologic classification -- Diagnosis of diabetes -- Complications of diabetes -- Medical treatment and modifications for diabetes control -- Medications -- Pancreas transplantation -- Blood glucose testing -- Oral relationships -- Dental hygiene care plan -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Diabetes insipidus -- References -- Suggested readings -- 66: Emergency care -- Prevention of emergencies -- Patient assessment -- Stress minimization -- Emergency materials and preparation -- Basic life support -- Rescue breathing -- External chest compressions -- Airway obstruction -- Oxygen administration -- Specific emergencies -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms -- Appendix 1: American Dental Hygienists' Association code of ethics for dental hygienists -- Appendix 2: Canadian Dental Hygienists' Association code of ethics -- Appendix 3: International Federation of Dental Hygienists' code of ethics -- Appendix 4: Guidelines for infection control in dental health-care settings 2003 -- Appendix 5: Average measurements of human teeth -- Index.
Summary: From the Publisher: The cornerstone text of almost every dental hygienists library is now in its thoroughly updated Tenth Edition. Written in a straightforward, concise outline format, this text equips both students and practitioners with the clinical and educational skills needed for successful practice. Features include full-color artwork and photographs, case-based exercises, procedure boxes, and ethics boxes. The Tenth Edition presents the latest technical advances and research findings and includes a new chapter on teeth whitening.
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Second Floor - Dentistry
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Compact Disk Compact Disk Centeral Library
Second Floor - Dentistry
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Second Floor - Dentistry
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Books Books Centeral Library
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Second Floor - Dentistry
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Includes bibliographical references and index.

Section 1: Orientation To Clinical Dental Hygiene Practice -- 1: Professional dental hygienist -- Roles of dental hygiene -- Dental hygiene care -- Types of services -- Dental hygiene process of care -- Cultural considerations -- Dental hygiene ethics -- Code of ethics -- Core values -- Ethical applications -- Legal factors in practice -- Personal factors in practice -- Special practice areas -- Objectives for professional practice -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 2: Preparation For Dental Hygiene Practice -- 2: Infection control: transmissible diseases -- Standard precautions -- Microorganisms of the oral cavity -- Infectious process -- Airborne infection -- Pathogens transmissible by the oral cavity -- Tuberculosis -- Viral hepatitis -- Hepatitis A -- Hepatitis B -- Prevention of hepatitis B -- Hepatitis C -- Hepatitis D -- Hepatitis E -- Herpesvirus diseases -- HHVI herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSVI) -- HHV2 herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) -- Clinical management -- HHV3 varicella-zoster virus (VZV) -- HHV4 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -- HHV5 cytomegalovirus (HCMV) -- HHV6 herpes lymphotrophic virus (HLV) -- HHV7 human herpes virus 7 (HHV7) -- HHV8 Kapsi's sarcoma related virus (KSRV) -- HIV-1 infection -- Life cycle of the HIV-1-- HIV-1 classification system for adolescents and adults -- Clinical course of HIV-1 infection -- Oral manifestations of HIV-1 infection -- HIV-1 infection in children -- Prevention of HIV-1 infection -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 3: Exposure control: barriers for patient and clinician -- Personal protection of the dental team -- Immunizations and periodic tests -- Clinical attire -- Use of face mask: respiratory protection -- Use of protective eyewear -- Hand care -- Handwashing principles -- Methods of hand washing -- Gloves and gloving -- Latex hypersensitivity -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 4: Infection control: clinical procedures -- Treatment room features -- Instrument processing center -- Cleaning procedures -- Packaging step -- Sterilization -- Moist heat: steam under pressure -- Dry heat -- Chemical vapor sterilizer -- Care of sterile instruments -- Chemical disinfectants -- Recommended chemical disinfectants -- Chemical sterilants (immersion) -- Preparation of the treatment room -- Patient preparation -- Summary of standard procedures for the prevention of disease transmission -- Occupational accidental exposure management -- Disposal of waste -- Supplemental recommendations -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 5: Patient reception and ergonomic practice -- Position of the patient -- Position of the clinician -- Neutral working posture -- Treatment area -- Ergonomic practice -- Self-care for the dental hygienist -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Suggested readings -- Section 3: Assessment -- 6: Documentation -- Patient record -- Privacy of patient records -- Examination procedures -- Tooth numbering systems -- Charting -- Dental records -- Periodontal records -- Care plan records -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 7: Personal, dental, and medical histories -- History preparation -- Questionnaire -- Interview -- Items included in the history -- Immediate applications of patient histories -- American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines -- Prophylaxis for dental and dental hygiene procedures -- ASA determination -- Review of history -- Records -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 8: Vital signs -- Body temperature -- Pulse -- Respiration -- Blood pressure -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 9: Dental radiographic imaging -- How X-Rays are produced -- Digital radiography -- Characteristics of an acceptable radiographic image -- Factors that influence the finished radiograph -- Exposure to radiation -- Risk of injury from radiation -- Rules for radiation protection -- Protection of clinician -- Protection of patient -- Clinical applications -- Procedures for film placement and angulation of ray -- Film selection for intraoral surveys -- Definitions and principles -- Periapical survey: paralleling technique -- Bitewing survey -- Peripical survey: bisecting-angle technique -- Occlusal survey -- Panoramic radiographic images -- Paraclinical procedures -- Infection control -- Film processing -- Essentials of an adequate darkroom -- Lighting -- Automated processing -- Manual processing -- Analysis of completed radiographs -- Record keeping -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 10: Extraoral and intraoral examination -- Objectives -- Components of examination -- Sequence of examination -- Documentation of findings -- Morphologic categories -- Oral cancer -- Procedure for follow-up of a suspicious lesion -- Exfoliative cytology -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 11: Study casts -- Clinical preparation -- Interocclusal record -- Preparation of impression trays -- Impression material -- Mandibular impression -- Maxillary impression -- Disinfection of impressions -- Paraclinical procedures -- Mixing the stone -- Pouring the cast -- Trimming the casts -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings --

12: Gingiva -- Objectives -- Treatment area -- Gingiva and related structures -- Recognition of gingival and periodontal infections -- Gingival examination -- Gingiva of young children -- Gingiva after periodontal surgery -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 13: Examination instruments and procedures -- Mouth mirror -- Instruments for application of air -- Probe -- Guide to probing -- Probing procedures -- Clinical attachment level -- Furcation examination -- Mucogingival examination -- Basic procedures for use of explorers -- Explorers: Supragingival procedures -- Explorers: Subgingival procedures -- Record findings -- Mobility examination -- Fremitus -- Radiographic examination -- Radiographic changes in periodontal infections -- Early periodontal disease -- Other radiographic findings -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested reading -- 14: Periodontal disease development -- Development of gingival and periodontal infections -- Gingival and periodontal pockets -- Tooth surface pocket wall -- Complications of pocket formation -- Local contributing factors in disease development -- Self cleansing mechanisms -- Risk factors for periodontal diseases -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested reading -- 15: Teeth -- Dentitions -- Dental caries -- Enamel caries -- Early childhood caries -- Root caries -- Noncarious dental lesions -- Enamel hypoplasia -- Attrition -- Erosion -- Abrasion -- Fractures of teeth -- Clinical examination of the teeth -- Recognition of carious lesions -- Testing for pulpal vitality -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 16: Occlusion -- Static occlusion -- Determination of the classification of malocclusion -- Occlusion of the primary teeth -- Functional occlusion -- Trauma from occlusion -- Recommendations for the patient with orthodontic needs -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 17: Dental biofilm and other soft deposits -- Acquired pellicle -- Dental biofilm -- Composition of dental biofilm -- Clinical aspects -- Significance of dental biofim -- Dental caries -- Effect of diet on biofilm -- Periodontal infections -- Materia Alba -- Food debris -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 18: Calculus -- Classification and distribution of calculus -- Composition -- Calculus formation -- Attachment of calculus -- Significance of dental calculus -- Clinical characteristics -- Prevention of calculus -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 19: Dental stains and discolorations -- Significance -- Extrinsic stains -- Endogenous intrinsic stains -- Exogenous intrinsic stains -- Records -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 20: Indices and scoring methods -- Types of scoring methods -- Indices that measure oral hygiene status -- Indices that measure gingical and periodontal health -- Indices that measure dental caries experience -- Indices that measure dental fluorosis -- Indices useful for community-based oral health surveillance -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 4: Dental Hygiene Diagnosis Care Planning -- 21: Planning for dental hygiene care -- Assessment findings -- Periodontal diagnosis -- Dental hygiene diagnosis -- Dental hygiene prognosis -- Considerations for providing care -- Dental hygiene care plan -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 22: Dental hygiene care plan -- Preparation of a dental hygiene care plan -- Components of a written care plan -- Sequencing and prioritizing patient care -- Presenting the dental hygiene care plan -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 5: Prevention -- 23: Health promotion and disease prevention -- Steps in a preventive program -- Patient counseling -- Motivation -- Learning process -- Individual patient planning -- Presentation, demonstration, practice -- Preschool child -- Teaching system -- Evaluation of teaching aids -- Use of disclosing agents -- Technical hints for disclosing agents -- Xerostomia -- Halitosis -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 24: Protocols for prevention and control of dental caries -- Dental caries diagnosis and detection -- Selective care planning -- Protocol for remineralization -- Maintenance care planning -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 25: Oral infection control: toothbrushes and toothbrushing -- Development of toothbrushes -- Manual toothbrushes -- Toothbrush selection for the patient -- Guidelines for manual toothbrushing -- Methods for manual toothbrushing -- Bass method: sulcular brushing -- Roll or rolling stroke method -- Stillman method -- Modified Stillman -- Charters method -- Other toothbrushing methods -- Power toothbrushes -- Supplemental brushing -- Toothbrushing for special conditions -- Effects of toothbrushing -- Care of toothbrushes -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 26: Interdental care -- Interdental area -- Planning interdental care -- Selective interdental biofilm removal -- Dental floss and tape -- Tufted dental floss -- Knitting yarn -- Gauze strip -- Interdental brushes -- Single-tuft brush (end-tuft, unituft) -- Interdental tip -- Toothpick in holder -- Wooden interdental cleaner -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings --

27: Dentifrices, mouth rinses, and irrigation -- Chemotherapeutics -- Dentifrices -- Preventive and therapeutic benefits of dentifrices -- Cosmetic effects of dentifrices -- Basic components of dentifrices -- Selection of dentifrice -- Mouth rinses -- Purposes and uses of mouth rinses -- Preventive and therapeutic agents of mouth rinses -- Commercial mouthwash ingredients -- Procedure for rinsing -- Oral irrigation -- Beneficial effects from irrigation -- Description of irrigators -- Delivery methods -- Applications for practice -- Food and Drug Administration (FDA): the regulatory agency for oral care products American Dental Association (ADA) seal of acceptance program -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 28: Patient with orthodontic appliances -- Cemented bands and bonded brackets -- Clinical procedures for bonding -- Dental hygiene care -- Completion of therapy -- Clinical procedures for debanding -- Clinical procedures for debonding -- Post-debonding evaluation -- Retention -- Post-debonding preventive care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 29: Care of dental prostheses -- Missing teeth -- Fixed partial dentures -- Care procedures for fixed prostheses -- Removable partial denture prostheses -- Self care procedures for removable partial prostheses -- Complete denture prostheses -- Self cleaning the complete denture prostheses -- Underlying mucosa -- Complete overdenture prostheses -- Dental hygiene care and instruction -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 30: Patient with dental implants -- Types of dental implants -- Endosseous implant -- Implant interfaces -- Preparation and placement -- Periimplant hygiene -- Maintenance -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 31: Patient who uses tobacco -- Health hazards -- Components of tobacco products -- Metabolism of nicotine -- Systemic effects -- Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) -- Prenatal and children -- Oral manifestations of tobacco use -- Tobacco and periodontal infections -- Nicotine addiction -- Treatment -- Pharmacotherapies used for treatment of nicotine addiction -- Nicotine-free therapy -- Dental hygiene care for the patient who uses tobacco assessment -- Clinical treatment procedures -- Tobacco cessation program -- 5 A's -- Team approach -- Advocacy -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 32: Diet and dietary analysis -- Nutrient standards for diet adequacy in health promotion -- Oral health relationships -- Dietary assessment -- Preparation for additional counseling -- Counseling procedures -- Evaluation of progress -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 33: Fluorides -- Fluoride metabolism -- Fluoride and tooth development -- Tooth surface fluoride -- Demineralization-remineralization -- Fluoridation -- Effects and benefits of fluoridation -- Partial defluoridation -- School fluoridation -- Discontinued fluoridation -- Fluorides in foods -- Dietary fluoride supplements -- Clinical procedures professional topical fluoride -- Self-applied fluorides -- Tray technique: home application -- Fluoride mouthrinses -- Brush-on gel -- Fluoride dentifrices -- Combined fluoride program -- Fluoride safety -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 34: Sealants -- Development of sealants -- How sealants work -- Sealant materials -- Indications for sealant placement -- Clinical procedures -- Penetration of sealant -- Maintenance -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 6: Treatment -- 35: Anxiety and pain control -- Components of pain -- Nonopioid analgesics -- Nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation -- Characteristics of nitrous oxide -- Equipment for nitrous oxide-oxygen -- Patient selection -- Clinical procedures for nitrous oxide-oxygen administration -- Potential hazards of occupational exposure -- Advantages and disadvantages of conscious sedation anesthesia -- Local anesthesia -- Pharmacology of local anesthetics -- Indications for local anesthesia -- Patient assessment -- Armamentarium for local anesthesia -- Clinical procedures for local anesthetic administration -- Potential adverse reactions to local anesthesia procedures -- Advantages and disadvantages of local anesthesia -- Noninjectable anesthesia -- Topical anesthesia -- Application of topical anesthetic -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 36: Instruments and principles for instrumentation -- Instrument identification -- Instrument parts -- Instrument features -- Treatment instruments -- Principles for instrument use -- Instrument grasp -- Neutral positions -- Fulcrum: finger rest -- Adaptation -- Angulation -- Lateral pressure -- Activation: stroke -- Visibility and accessibility -- Dexterity development -- Prevention of cumulative trauma -- Instrument sharpening -- Some basic sharpening principles -- Sharpening curets and scalers -- Moving flat stone: stationary instrument -- Stationary flat stone: moving instrument -- Sharpening cone -- Mandrel-mounted stones -- Sharpening the file scaler -- Sharpening the hoe scaler -- Sharpening the chisel scaler -- Sharpening explorers -- Care of sharpening equipment -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings --

37: Nonsurgical periodontal instrumentation -- Scope of nonsurgical therapy -- Preparation of the clinician -- Focus of treatment -- Aims and expected outcomes -- Care plan for instrumentation -- Overall appointment systems -- Preparation for instrumentation -- Calculus removal -- Manual subgingival scaling steps -- Ultrasonic and sonic sealing -- Mode of action -- Ultrasonic scaling devices -- Sonic sealing device -- Purposes and uses of power-driven scalers -- Instrument tip design -- Clinical preparation -- Instrumentation -- Overhanging restorations -- Completion of initial therapy -- Effects of nonsurgical instrumentation -- Follow-up evaluation -- Instrument maintenance -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 38: Nonsurgical periodontal therapy: supplemental care procedures -- Nonsurgical periodontal therapy -- Advanced instrumentation -- Antimicrobial treatment -- Systemic -- Professional subgingival irrigation -- Local delivery of antimicrobials -- Tetracycline fiber -- Doxycycline polymer -- Minocycline hydrochloride -- Chlorhexidine chip -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 39: Acute periodontal conditions -- Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis -- Types of necrotizing periodontal conditions -- Clinical recognition -- Risk factors -- Etiology -- Dental hygience care -- Care for the acute stage -- Periodontal abscess -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 40: Sutures and dressings -- Sutures -- Needles -- Knots -- Procedure for suture removal -- Periodontal dressings -- Types of dressings -- Clinical application -- Dressing removal and replacement -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 41: Dentin hypersensitivity -- Hypersensitivity defined -- Etiology of dentin hypersensitivity -- Natural desensitization -- Patients and their pain -- Differential diagnosis -- Hypersensitivity management -- Oral hygiene care and treatment interventions -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 42: Extrinsic stain removal -- Purpose of stain removal -- Effects of cleaning and polishing -- Precautions -- Indications for stain removal -- Clinical application of selective stain removal -- Cleaning and polishing agents -- Clinical applications -- Procedures for stain removal (coronal polishing) -- Porte polisher -- Power-driven instruments -- Use of the prophylaxis angle -- Polishing proximal surfaces -- Air-powder polishing -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 43: Tooth whitening -- History -- Discolorations/stains -- Types of tooth whitening -- Treatment materials -- Process whitening -- Patient selection -- Patient preparation -- Side effects of whitening -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Evaluation -- Section 7: Evaluation And Maintenance -- 44: Evaluation and maintenance -- Principles of evaluation -- Maintenance -- Maintenance appointment procedures -- Recurrence of periodontal disease -- Administration methods -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Section 8: Patients With Special Needs -- 45: Pregnant patient -- Fetal development -- Oral findings during pregnancy -- Aspects of patient care -- Dental hygiene care -- Patient instruction -- Special problems for referral -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 46: Pediatric oral health care: infancy through age 5 -- Access to parents by health professionals -- First contact with parent and child -- Risk factors for caries and gingivitis -- Anticipatory guidance for parents, caregivers, and providers -- Oral health considerations for infants -- Oral health considerations for toddlers and preschoolers -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the parents -- References -- Suggested readings -- 47: Patient with a cleft lip and/or palate -- Classification of clefts -- Etiology -- Oral characteristics -- General physical characteristics -- Treatment -- Dental hygiene care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 48: Preadolescent to postmenopausal patients -- Adolescence and puberty -- Oral conditions -- Dental hygiene care -- Menstruation -- Hormonal contraceptives -- Menopause -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 49: Elderly patient -- Aging -- Physiological aging -- Pathology and disease -- Osteoporosis -- Alzheimer's disease -- Oral findings in aging -- Dental hygiene care -- Dental biofilm control -- Periodontal care -- Dental caries control -- Diet and nutrition -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 50: Edentulous patient -- Purposes for wearing dentures -- Types of removable complete dentures -- Edentulous mouth -- Patient with new dentures -- Denture-related oral changes -- Denture-induced oral lesions -- Denture marking for identification -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 51: Oral and maxillofacial surgery patient -- Patient preparation -- Dental hygiene care -- Patient with intermaxillary fixation -- Fractured jaw -- Mandibular fractures -- Midfacial fracture -- Alveolar process fracture -- Dental hygiene care -- Dental hygiene care prior to general surgery -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 52: Patient with cancer -- Description -- Surgery -- Chemotherapy -- Radiation therapy -- Hematopoietic cell transplantation -- Dental hygiene/dental plan of care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Factors to teach the caregiver -- References -- Suggested readings -- 53: Care of patients with disabilities -- Disabilities -- Dental and dental hygiene care -- Appointment scheduling -- Barrier-free environment -- Patient reception: the initial appointment -- Wheelchair transfers -- Patient position stabilization -- Oral manifestations -- Disease prevention and control -- Dental biofilm removal -- Self-care aids -- Instruction for caregiver -- Fluorides -- Pit and fissure sealants -- Diet instruction -- Instrumentation -- Group in-service education -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach patient and caregiver -- References -- Suggested readings --

54: Patient who is homebound -- Homebound patients -- Dental hygiene care and instruction -- Unconscious patient -- Terminally ill patient -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Factors to teach the caregiver -- References -- Suggested readings -- 55: Patient with a physical impairment -- Spinal cord dysfunctions -- Spinal cord injury -- Myelomeningocele -- Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) -- Muscular dystrophies -- Myasthenia Gravis -- Multiple Sclerosis -- Cerebral Palsy -- Bell's Palsy -- Parkinson's disease -- Arthritis -- Scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis) -- Kidney disease -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 56: Patient with a sensory disability -- Americans with Disabilities Act -- Visual impairment -- Hearing impairment -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Reference -- Suggested readings -- 57: Family abuse and neglect -- Child maltreatment -- Elder maltreatment -- Intimate partner abuse and violence -- Documentation -- Reporting maltreatment -- Forensic dentistry -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 58: Patient with a seizure disorder -- Epileptic syndromes -- Clinical manifestations -- Treatment -- Oral findings -- Dental hygiene care plan -- Emergency care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 59: Patient with a mental disability -- Mental retardation -- Down Syndrome -- Autistic spectrum disorder -- Dental hygiene care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Factors to teach the caregiver -- References -- Suggested readings -- 60: Patient with psychiatric disorder -- Schizophrenia -- Mood disorders -- Major depressive disorder -- Bipolar disorder -- Postpartum mood disturbances -- Anxiety disorders -- Eating disorders -- Anorexia Nervosa -- Bulimia Nervosa -- Psychiatric emergencies -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 61: Patient with a substance-related disorder -- Alcohol-related disorders -- Metabolism of alcohol -- Health hazards -- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) -- Alcohol withdrawal syndrome -- Treatment for alcoholism -- Prescription and street drugs -- Most common drugs of abuse -- Treatment methods -- Dental hygiene care -- Clinical examination -- Clinical treatment and instruction -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 62: Patient with a respiratory disease -- Respiratory system -- Upper respiratory tract diseases -- Lower respiratory tract diseases -- Pneumonia -- Tuberculosis (TB) -- Asthma -- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) -- Cystic Fibrosis -- Summary guidelines for dental hygiene care -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 63: Patient with a cardiovascular disease -- Classification -- Congenital heart diseases -- Rheumatic heart disease -- Mitral valve prolapse -- Infective endocarditis -- Hypertension -- Hypertensive heart disease -- Ischemic heart disease -- Angina pectoris -- Myocardial infarction -- Congestive heart failure -- Basic noninvasive treatment -- Surgical treatment -- Anticoagulant therapy -- Cardiac surgery -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 64: Patient with a blood disorder -- Oral findings suggestive of blood disorders -- Normal blood -- Anemias -- Iron deficiency anemia -- Megaloblastic anemias -- Sickle cell disease -- Polycythemias -- White blood cells -- Bleeding disorders -- Coagulation disorders -- Miscellaneous treatment suggestions for dental professionals -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- 65: Patient with diabetes mellitus -- Diabetes mellitus -- Insulin -- Diabetes mellitus etiologic classification -- Diagnosis of diabetes -- Complications of diabetes -- Medical treatment and modifications for diabetes control -- Medications -- Pancreas transplantation -- Blood glucose testing -- Oral relationships -- Dental hygiene care plan -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- Diabetes insipidus -- References -- Suggested readings -- 66: Emergency care -- Prevention of emergencies -- Patient assessment -- Stress minimization -- Emergency materials and preparation -- Basic life support -- Rescue breathing -- External chest compressions -- Airway obstruction -- Oxygen administration -- Specific emergencies -- Everyday ethics -- Factors to teach the patient -- References -- Suggested readings -- Prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms -- Appendix 1: American Dental Hygienists' Association code of ethics for dental hygienists -- Appendix 2: Canadian Dental Hygienists' Association code of ethics -- Appendix 3: International Federation of Dental Hygienists' code of ethics -- Appendix 4: Guidelines for infection control in dental health-care settings 2003 -- Appendix 5: Average measurements of human teeth -- Index.

From the Publisher: The cornerstone text of almost every dental hygienists library is now in its thoroughly updated Tenth Edition. Written in a straightforward, concise outline format, this text equips both students and practitioners with the clinical and educational skills needed for successful practice. Features include full-color artwork and photographs, case-based exercises, procedure boxes, and ethics boxes. The Tenth Edition presents the latest technical advances and research findings and includes a new chapter on teeth whitening.

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