35986841_10216840653711318_1105697261150535680_n

Cost accounting : Arabn world ed a managerial emphasis / Charles T. Horngren, Srikant M. Datar, Madhav V. Rajan.

By: Horngren, Charles T, 1926-
Contributor(s): Datar, Srikant M | Rajan, Madhav V
Material type: TextTextPublisher: Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson/Prentice Hall, ℗♭2014Edition: 14th edDescription: xxi, 869 pages : color illustrations ; 29 cmContent type: text Media type: unmediated Carrier type: volumeISBN: 0132109174-99887766Uniform titles: Cost accounting. Subject(s): Cost accountingDDC classification: 658.1511 LOC classification: HF5686.C8 | H59 2012
Contents:
Note continued: 9. Inventory Costing and Capacity Analysis -- Lean Manufacturing Helps Companies Reduce Inventory and Survive the Recession -- Variable and Absorption Costing -- Variable Costing -- Absorption Costing -- Comparing Variable and Absoption Costing -- Variable vs. Absorption Costing: Operating Income and Income Statements -- Comparing Income Statements for One Year -- Comparing Income Statements for Three Years -- Variable Costing and the Effect of Sales and Production on Operating Income -- Absorption Costing and Performance Measurement -- Undesirable Buildup of Inventories -- Proposals for Revising Performance Evaluation -- Comparing Inventory Costing Methods -- Throughput Costing -- A Comparison of Alternative Inventory-Costing Methods -- Denominator-Level Capacity Concepts and Fixed-Cost Capacity Analysis -- Absorption Costing and Alternative Denominator-Level Capacity Concepts -- Effect on Budgeted Fixed Manufacturing Cost Rate -- Choosing a Capacity Level -- Product Costing and Capacity Management -- Pricing Decisions and the Downward Demand Spiral -- Performance Evaluation -- Concepts in Action: The "Death Spiral" and the End of Landline Telephone Service -- External Reporting -- Tax Requirements -- Planning and Control of Capacity Costs -- Difficulties in Forecasting Chosen Denominator-Level Concept -- Difficulties in Forecasting Fixed Manufacturing Costs -- Nonmanufacturing Costs -- Activity-Based Costing -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Breakeven Points in Variable Costing and Absorption Costing -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 10. Determining How Costs Behave -- Management Accountants at Cisco Embrace Opportunities, Enhance Sustainability -- Basic Assumptions and Examples of Cost Functions -- Basic Assumptions -- Linear Cost Functions -- Review of Cost Classification -- Identifying Cost Drivers -- The Cause-and-Effect Criterion -- Cost Drivers and the Decision-Making Process -- Cost Estimation Methods -- Industrial Engineering Method -- Conference Method -- Account Analysis Method -- Quantitative Analysis Method -- Steps in Estimating a Cost Function Using Quantitative Analysis -- High-Low Method -- Regression Analysis Method -- Evaluating Cost Drivers of the Estimated Cost Function -- Choosing Among Cost Drivers -- Concepts in Action: Activity-Based Costing: Identifying Cost and Revenue Drivers -- Cost Drivers and Activity-Based Costing -- Nonlinear Cost Functions -- Learning Curves -- Cumulative Average-Time Learning Model -- Incremental Unit-Time Learning Model -- Incorporating Learning-Curve Effects into Prices and Standards -- Data Collection and Adjustment Issues -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Regression Analysis -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 11. Decision Making and Relevant Information -- Relevant Costs, JetBlue, and Twitter -- Information and the Decision Process -- The Concept of Relevance -- Relevant Costs and Relevant Revenues -- Qualitative and Quantitative Relevant Information -- An Illustration of Relevance: Choosing Output Levels -- One-Time-Only Special Orders -- Potential Problems in Relevant-Cost Analysis -- Insourcing-versus-Outsourcing and Make-versus-Buy Decisions -- Outsourcing and Idle Facilities -- Strategic and Qualitative Factors -- Concepts in Action: Pringles Prints and the Offshoring of Innovation -- International Outsourcing -- Opportunity Costs and Outsourcing -- The Opportunity-Cost Approach -- Carrying Costs of Inventory -- Product-Mix Decisions with Capacity Constraints -- Customer Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs -- Relevant-Revenue and Relevant-Cost Analysis of Dropping a Customer -- Relevant-Revenue and Relevant-Cost Analysis of Adding a Customer -- Relevant-Revenue and Relevant-Cost Analysis of Closing or Adding Branch Offices or Segments -- Irrelevance of Past Costs and Equipment-Replacement Decisions -- Decisions and Performance Evaluation -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Linear Programming -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 12. Pricing Decisions and Cost Management -- Target Pricing and Tata Motors' $2,500 Car -- Major Influences on Pricing Decisions -- Customers, Competitors, and Costs -- Costing and Pricing for the Short Run -- Relevant Costs for Short-Run Pricing Decisions -- Strategic and Other Factors in Short-Run Pricing -- Effect of Time Horizon on Short-Run Pricing Decisions -- Costing and Pricing for the Long Run -- Calculating Product Costs for Long-Run Pricing Decisions -- Alternative Long-Run Pricing Approaches -- Target Costing for Target Pricing -- Understanding Customers' Perceived Value -- Doing Competitor Analysis -- Implementing Target Pricing and Target Costing -- Concepts in Action: Extreme Target Pricing and Cost Management at IKEA -- Value Engineering, Cost Incurrence, and Locked-In Costs -- Value-Chain Analysis and Cross-Functional Teams -- Achieving the Target Cost per Unit for Provalue -- Cost-Pius Pricing -- Cost-Pius Target Rate of Return on Investment -- Alternative Cost-Pius Methods -- Cost-Pius Pricing and Target Pricing -- Life-Cycle Product Budgeting and Costing -- Life-Cycle Budgeting and Pricing Decisions -- Customer Life-Cycle Costing -- Additional Considerations for Pricing Decisions -- Price Discrimination -- Peak-Load Pricing -- International Considerations -- Antitrust Laws -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 13. Strategy, Balanced Scorecard, and Strategic Profitability Analysis -- Balanced Scorecard Helps Infosys Transform into a Leading Consultancy -- What Is Strategy? -- Building Internal Capabilities: Quality Improvement and Reengineering at Chipset -- Strategy Implementation and the Balanced Scorecard -- The Balanced Scorecard -- Strategy Maps and the Balanced Scorecard -- Implementing a Balanced Scorecard -- Aligning the Balanced Scorecard to Strategy -- Features of a Good Balanced Scorecard -- Pitfalls in Implementing a Balanced Scorecard -- Evaluating the Success of Strategy and Implementation -- Strategic Analysis of Operating Income -- Growth Component of Change in Operating Income -- Price-Recovery Component of Change in Operating Income -- Productivity Component of Change in Operating Income -- Further Analysis of Growth, Price-Recovery, and Productivity Components -- Concepts in Action: The Growth Versus Profitability Choice at Facebook -- Applying the Five-Step Decision-Making Framework to Strategy -- Downsizing and the Management of Processing Capacity -- Engineered and Discretionary Costs -- Identifying Unused Capacity for Engineered and Discretionary Overhead Costs -- Managing Unused Capacity -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Productivity Measurement -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 14. Cost Allocation, Customer-Profitability Analysis, and Sales-Variance Analysis -- Minding the Store: Analyzing Customers, Best Buy Decides Not All Are Welcome -- Purposes of Cost Allocation -- Criteria to Guide Cost-Allocation Decisions -- Cost Allocation Decisions -- Allocating Corporate Costs to Divisions and Products -- Implementing Corporate Cost Allocations -- Customer-Profitability Analysis -- Customer-Revenue Analysis -- Customer-Cost Analysis -- Customer-Level Costs -- Customer-Profitability Profiles -- Presenting Profitability Analysis -- Using the Five-Step Decision-Making Process to Manage Customer Profitability -- Concepts in Action: iPhone "Apps" Challenge Customer Profitability at AT & T -- Sales Variances -- Static-Budget Variance -- Flexible-Budget Variance and Sales-Volume Variance -- Sales-Mix Variance -- Sales-Quantity Variance -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Mix and Yield Variances for Substitutable Inputs -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 15. Allocation of Support-Department Costs, Common Costs, and Revenues -- Cost Allocation and the Future of "Smart Grid" Energy Infrastructure -- Allocating Support Department Costs Using the Single-Rate and Dual-Rate Methods -- Single-Rate and Dual-Rate Methods -- Allocation Based on the Demand for (or Usage of) Computer Services -- Allocation Based on the Supply of Capacity -- Single-Rate Versus Dual-Rate Method -- Budgeted Versus Actual Costs, and the Choice of Allocaton Base -- Budgeted Versus Actual Rates -- Budgeted Versus Actual Usage -- Allocating Costs of Multiple Support Departments -- Direct Method -- Step-Down Method -- Reciprocal Method -- Overview of Methods -- Allocating Common Costs -- Stand-Alone Cost-Allocation Method -- Incremental Cost-Allocation Method -- Cost Allocations and Contract Disputes -- Contracting with the U.S. Government -- Fairness of Pricing -- Concepts in Action: Contract Disputes over Reimbursable Costs for the U.S. Department of Defense -- Bundled Products and Revenue Allocation Methods -- Bundling and Revenue Allocation -- Stand-Alone Revenue-Allocation Method -- Incremental Revenue-Allocation Method -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 16. Cost Allocation: Joint Products and Byproducts -- Joint Cost Allocation and the Production of Ethanol Fuel -- Joint-Cost Basics -- Allocating Joint Costs -- Approaches to Allocating Joint Costs -- Sales Value at Splitoff Method -- Physical-Measure Method -- Net Realizable Value Method -- Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method -- Choosing an Allocation Method.
Note continued: Not Allocating Joint Costs -- Irrelevance of Joint Costs for Decision Making -- Sell-or-Process-Further Decisions -- Joint-Cost Allocation and Performance Evaluation -- Pricing Decisions -- Accounting for Byproducts -- Concepts in Action: Byproduct Costing Keeps Wendy's Chili Profitable ... and on the Menu -- Production Method: Byproducts Recognized at Time Production Is Completed -- Sales Method: Byproducts Recognized at Time of Sale -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 17. Process Costing -- ExxonMobil and Accounting Differences in the Oil Patch -- Illustrating Process Costing -- Case 1 Process Costing with No Beginning or Ending Work-in-Process Inventory -- Case 2 Process Costing with Zero Beginning and Some Ending Work-in-Process Inventory -- Physical Units and Equivalent Units (Steps 1 and 2) -- Calculation of Product Costs (Steps 3, 4, and 5) -- Journal Entries -- Case 3 Process Costing with Some Beginning and Some Ending Work-in-Process Inventory -- Weighted-Average Method -- First-In, First-Out Method -- Comparison of Weighted-Average and FIFO Methods -- Transferred-In Costs in Process Costing -- Transferred-In Costs and the Weighted-Average Method -- Transferred-In Costs and the FIFO Method -- Points to Remember About Transferred-In Costs -- Hybrid Costing Systems -- Overview of Operation-Costing Systems -- Concepts in Action: Hybrid Costing for Customized Shoes at Adidas -- Illustration of an Operation-Costing System -- Journal Entries -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Standard-Costing Method of Process Costing -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 18. Spoilage, Rework, and Scrap -- Rework Delays the Boeing Dreamliner by Three Years -- Defining Spoilage, Rework and Scrap -- Two Types of Spoilage -- Normal Spoilage -- Abnormal Spoilage -- Spoilage in Process Costing Using Weighted-Average and FIFO -- Count All Spoilage -- Five-Step Procedure for Process Costing with Spoilage -- Weighted-Average Method and Spoilage -- FIFO Method and Spoilage -- Journal Entries -- Inspection Points and Allocating Costs of Normal Spoilage -- Job Costing and Spoilage -- Job Costing and Rework -- Accounting for Scrap -- Recognizing Scrap at the Time of Its Sale -- Recognizing Scrap at the Time of Its Production -- Concepts in Action: Managing Waste and Environmental Costs at KB Home -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Standard-Costing Method and Spoilage -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 19. Balanced Scorecard: Quality, Time, and the Theory of Constraints -- Toyota Plans Changes After Millions of Defective Cars Are Recalled -- Quality as a Competitive Tool -- The Financial Perspective: Costs of Quality -- The Customer Perspective: Nonfinancial Measures of Customer Satisfaction -- The Internal-Business-Process Perspective: Analyzing Quality Problems and Improving Quality -- Nonfinancial Measures of Internal-Business-Process Quality -- The Learning-and-Growth Perspective: Quality Improvements -- Making Decisions and Evaluating Quality Performance -- Time as a Competitive Tool -- Customer-Response Time and On-Time Performance -- Bottlenecks and Time Drivers -- Concepts in Action: Overcoming Wireless Data Bottlenecks Relevant Revenues and Relevant Costs of Time -- Theory of Constraints and Throughput-Margin Analysis -- Managing Bottlenecks -- Balanced Scorecard and Time-Related Measures -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 20. Inventory Management, Just-in-Time, and Simplified Costing Methods -- Costco Aggressively Manages Inventory to Thrive in Tough Times -- Inventory Management in Retail Organizations -- Costs Associated with Goods for Sale -- Economic-Order-Quantity Decision Model -- When to Order, Assuming Certainty -- Safety Stock -- Estimating Inventory-Related Relevant Costs and Their Effects -- Considerations in Obtaining Estimates of Relevant Costs -- Cost of a Prediction Error -- Conflict Between the EOQ Decision Model and Managers' Performance Evaluation -- Just-in-Time Purchasing -- JIT Purchasing and EOQ Model Parameters -- Relevant Costs of JIT Purchasing -- Supplier Evaluation and Relevant Costs of Quality and Timely Deliveries -- JIT Purchasing, Planning and Control, and Supply-Chain Analysis -- Inventory Management, MRP and JIT Production -- Materials Requirements Planning -- JIT Production -- Features of JIT Production Systems -- Financial Benefits of JIT and Relevant Costs -- JIT in Service Industries -- Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems -- Concepts in Action: After the Encore: Just-in-Time Live Concert Recordings -- Performance Measures and Control in JIT Production -- Effect of JIT Systems on Product Costing -- Backflush Costing -- Simplified Normal or Standard Costing Systems -- Accounting for Variances -- Special Considerations in Backflush Costing -- Lean Accounting -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 21. Capital Budgeting and Cost Analysis -- Target's Capital Budgeting Hits the Bull's-Eye -- Stages of Capital Budgeting -- Discounted Cash Flow -- Net Present Value Method -- Internal Rate-of-Return Method -- Comparison of Net Present Value and Internal Rate-of-Return Methods -- Sensitivity Analysis -- Payback Method -- Uniform Cash Flows -- Nonuniform Cash Flows -- Accrual Accounting Rate-of-Return Method -- Relevant Cash Flows in Discounted Cash Flow Analysis -- Relevant After-Tax Flows -- Categories of Cash Flows -- Project Management and Performance Evaluation -- Post-Investment Audits -- Performance Evaluation -- Strategic Considerations in Capital Budgeting -- Investment in Research and Development -- Customer Value and Capital Budgeting -- Concepts in Action: international Capital Budgeting at Disney -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Capital Budgeting and Inflation -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- Answers to Exercises in Compound Interest (Exercise 21-16) -- 22. Management Control Systems, Transfer Pricing, and Multinational Considerations -- Symantec Wins $545 million Opinion in Transfer Pricing Dispute with the IRS -- Management Control Systems -- Formal and Informal Systems -- Effective Management Control -- Decentralization -- Benefits of Decentralization -- Costs of Decentralization -- Comparison of Benefits and Costs -- Decentralization in Multinational Companies -- Choices About Responsibility Centers -- Transfer Pricing -- Criteria for Evaluating Transfer Prices -- Calculating Transfer Prices -- An Illustration of Transfer Pricing -- Market-Based Transfer Prices -- Perfectly-Competitive-Market Case -- Distress Prices -- Imperfect Competition -- Cost-Based Transfer Prices -- Full-Cost Bases -- Variable-Cost Bases -- Hybrid Transfer Prices -- Prorating the Difference Between Maximum and Minimum Transfer Prices -- Negotiated Pricing -- Dual Pricing -- A General Guideline for Transfer-Pricing Situations -- Multinational Transfer Pricing and Tax Considerations -- Transfer Pricing for Tax Minimization -- Concepts in Action: Transfer Pricing Dispute Temporarily Stops the Flow of Fiji Water -- Transfer Prices Designed for Multiple Objectives -- Additional Issues in Transfer Pricing -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 23. Performance Measurement, Compensation, and Multinational Considerations -- Misalignment Between CEO Compensation and Performance at AIG -- Financial and Nonfinancial Performance Measures -- Accounting-Based Measures for Business Units -- Return on Investment -- Residual Income -- Economic Value Added -- Return on Sales -- Comparing Performance Measures -- Choosing the Details of the Performance Measures -- Alternative Time Horizons -- Alternative Definitions of Investment -- Alternative Asset Measurements -- Target Levels of Performance and Feedback -- Choosing Target Levels of Performance -- Choosing the Timing of Feed back -- Performance Measurement in Multinational Companies -- Calculating the Foreign Division's ROI in the Foreign Currency -- Calculating the Foreign Division's ROI in U.S. Dollars -- Distinction Between Managers and Organization Units -- The Basic Trade-Off: Creating Incentives Versus Imposing Risk -- Intensity of Incentives and Financial and Nonfinancial Measurements -- Benchmarks and Relative Performance Evaluation -- Performance Measures at the Individual Activity Level -- Executive Performance Measures and Compensation -- Concepts in Action: Government Bailouts, Record Profits, and the 2009 Wall Street Compensation Dilemma -- Strategy and Levers of Control -- Boundary Systems -- Belief Systems -- Interactive Control Systems -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem.
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Includes bibliographical references and index.

Note continued: 9. Inventory Costing and Capacity Analysis -- Lean Manufacturing Helps Companies Reduce Inventory and Survive the Recession -- Variable and Absorption Costing -- Variable Costing -- Absorption Costing -- Comparing Variable and Absoption Costing -- Variable vs. Absorption Costing: Operating Income and Income Statements -- Comparing Income Statements for One Year -- Comparing Income Statements for Three Years -- Variable Costing and the Effect of Sales and Production on Operating Income -- Absorption Costing and Performance Measurement -- Undesirable Buildup of Inventories -- Proposals for Revising Performance Evaluation -- Comparing Inventory Costing Methods -- Throughput Costing -- A Comparison of Alternative Inventory-Costing Methods -- Denominator-Level Capacity Concepts and Fixed-Cost Capacity Analysis -- Absorption Costing and Alternative Denominator-Level Capacity Concepts -- Effect on Budgeted Fixed Manufacturing Cost Rate -- Choosing a Capacity Level -- Product Costing and Capacity Management -- Pricing Decisions and the Downward Demand Spiral -- Performance Evaluation -- Concepts in Action: The "Death Spiral" and the End of Landline Telephone Service -- External Reporting -- Tax Requirements -- Planning and Control of Capacity Costs -- Difficulties in Forecasting Chosen Denominator-Level Concept -- Difficulties in Forecasting Fixed Manufacturing Costs -- Nonmanufacturing Costs -- Activity-Based Costing -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Breakeven Points in Variable Costing and Absorption Costing -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 10. Determining How Costs Behave -- Management Accountants at Cisco Embrace Opportunities, Enhance Sustainability -- Basic Assumptions and Examples of Cost Functions -- Basic Assumptions -- Linear Cost Functions -- Review of Cost Classification -- Identifying Cost Drivers -- The Cause-and-Effect Criterion -- Cost Drivers and the Decision-Making Process -- Cost Estimation Methods -- Industrial Engineering Method -- Conference Method -- Account Analysis Method -- Quantitative Analysis Method -- Steps in Estimating a Cost Function Using Quantitative Analysis -- High-Low Method -- Regression Analysis Method -- Evaluating Cost Drivers of the Estimated Cost Function -- Choosing Among Cost Drivers -- Concepts in Action: Activity-Based Costing: Identifying Cost and Revenue Drivers -- Cost Drivers and Activity-Based Costing -- Nonlinear Cost Functions -- Learning Curves -- Cumulative Average-Time Learning Model -- Incremental Unit-Time Learning Model -- Incorporating Learning-Curve Effects into Prices and Standards -- Data Collection and Adjustment Issues -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Regression Analysis -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 11. Decision Making and Relevant Information -- Relevant Costs, JetBlue, and Twitter -- Information and the Decision Process -- The Concept of Relevance -- Relevant Costs and Relevant Revenues -- Qualitative and Quantitative Relevant Information -- An Illustration of Relevance: Choosing Output Levels -- One-Time-Only Special Orders -- Potential Problems in Relevant-Cost Analysis -- Insourcing-versus-Outsourcing and Make-versus-Buy Decisions -- Outsourcing and Idle Facilities -- Strategic and Qualitative Factors -- Concepts in Action: Pringles Prints and the Offshoring of Innovation -- International Outsourcing -- Opportunity Costs and Outsourcing -- The Opportunity-Cost Approach -- Carrying Costs of Inventory -- Product-Mix Decisions with Capacity Constraints -- Customer Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs -- Relevant-Revenue and Relevant-Cost Analysis of Dropping a Customer -- Relevant-Revenue and Relevant-Cost Analysis of Adding a Customer -- Relevant-Revenue and Relevant-Cost Analysis of Closing or Adding Branch Offices or Segments -- Irrelevance of Past Costs and Equipment-Replacement Decisions -- Decisions and Performance Evaluation -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Linear Programming -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 12. Pricing Decisions and Cost Management -- Target Pricing and Tata Motors' $2,500 Car -- Major Influences on Pricing Decisions -- Customers, Competitors, and Costs -- Costing and Pricing for the Short Run -- Relevant Costs for Short-Run Pricing Decisions -- Strategic and Other Factors in Short-Run Pricing -- Effect of Time Horizon on Short-Run Pricing Decisions -- Costing and Pricing for the Long Run -- Calculating Product Costs for Long-Run Pricing Decisions -- Alternative Long-Run Pricing Approaches -- Target Costing for Target Pricing -- Understanding Customers' Perceived Value -- Doing Competitor Analysis -- Implementing Target Pricing and Target Costing -- Concepts in Action: Extreme Target Pricing and Cost Management at IKEA -- Value Engineering, Cost Incurrence, and Locked-In Costs -- Value-Chain Analysis and Cross-Functional Teams -- Achieving the Target Cost per Unit for Provalue -- Cost-Pius Pricing -- Cost-Pius Target Rate of Return on Investment -- Alternative Cost-Pius Methods -- Cost-Pius Pricing and Target Pricing -- Life-Cycle Product Budgeting and Costing -- Life-Cycle Budgeting and Pricing Decisions -- Customer Life-Cycle Costing -- Additional Considerations for Pricing Decisions -- Price Discrimination -- Peak-Load Pricing -- International Considerations -- Antitrust Laws -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 13. Strategy, Balanced Scorecard, and Strategic Profitability Analysis -- Balanced Scorecard Helps Infosys Transform into a Leading Consultancy -- What Is Strategy? -- Building Internal Capabilities: Quality Improvement and Reengineering at Chipset -- Strategy Implementation and the Balanced Scorecard -- The Balanced Scorecard -- Strategy Maps and the Balanced Scorecard -- Implementing a Balanced Scorecard -- Aligning the Balanced Scorecard to Strategy -- Features of a Good Balanced Scorecard -- Pitfalls in Implementing a Balanced Scorecard -- Evaluating the Success of Strategy and Implementation -- Strategic Analysis of Operating Income -- Growth Component of Change in Operating Income -- Price-Recovery Component of Change in Operating Income -- Productivity Component of Change in Operating Income -- Further Analysis of Growth, Price-Recovery, and Productivity Components -- Concepts in Action: The Growth Versus Profitability Choice at Facebook -- Applying the Five-Step Decision-Making Framework to Strategy -- Downsizing and the Management of Processing Capacity -- Engineered and Discretionary Costs -- Identifying Unused Capacity for Engineered and Discretionary Overhead Costs -- Managing Unused Capacity -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Productivity Measurement -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 14. Cost Allocation, Customer-Profitability Analysis, and Sales-Variance Analysis -- Minding the Store: Analyzing Customers, Best Buy Decides Not All Are Welcome -- Purposes of Cost Allocation -- Criteria to Guide Cost-Allocation Decisions -- Cost Allocation Decisions -- Allocating Corporate Costs to Divisions and Products -- Implementing Corporate Cost Allocations -- Customer-Profitability Analysis -- Customer-Revenue Analysis -- Customer-Cost Analysis -- Customer-Level Costs -- Customer-Profitability Profiles -- Presenting Profitability Analysis -- Using the Five-Step Decision-Making Process to Manage Customer Profitability -- Concepts in Action: iPhone "Apps" Challenge Customer Profitability at AT & T -- Sales Variances -- Static-Budget Variance -- Flexible-Budget Variance and Sales-Volume Variance -- Sales-Mix Variance -- Sales-Quantity Variance -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Mix and Yield Variances for Substitutable Inputs -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 15. Allocation of Support-Department Costs, Common Costs, and Revenues -- Cost Allocation and the Future of "Smart Grid" Energy Infrastructure -- Allocating Support Department Costs Using the Single-Rate and Dual-Rate Methods -- Single-Rate and Dual-Rate Methods -- Allocation Based on the Demand for (or Usage of) Computer Services -- Allocation Based on the Supply of Capacity -- Single-Rate Versus Dual-Rate Method -- Budgeted Versus Actual Costs, and the Choice of Allocaton Base -- Budgeted Versus Actual Rates -- Budgeted Versus Actual Usage -- Allocating Costs of Multiple Support Departments -- Direct Method -- Step-Down Method -- Reciprocal Method -- Overview of Methods -- Allocating Common Costs -- Stand-Alone Cost-Allocation Method -- Incremental Cost-Allocation Method -- Cost Allocations and Contract Disputes -- Contracting with the U.S. Government -- Fairness of Pricing -- Concepts in Action: Contract Disputes over Reimbursable Costs for the U.S. Department of Defense -- Bundled Products and Revenue Allocation Methods -- Bundling and Revenue Allocation -- Stand-Alone Revenue-Allocation Method -- Incremental Revenue-Allocation Method -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 16. Cost Allocation: Joint Products and Byproducts -- Joint Cost Allocation and the Production of Ethanol Fuel -- Joint-Cost Basics -- Allocating Joint Costs -- Approaches to Allocating Joint Costs -- Sales Value at Splitoff Method -- Physical-Measure Method -- Net Realizable Value Method -- Constant Gross-Margin Percentage NRV Method -- Choosing an Allocation Method.

Note continued: Not Allocating Joint Costs -- Irrelevance of Joint Costs for Decision Making -- Sell-or-Process-Further Decisions -- Joint-Cost Allocation and Performance Evaluation -- Pricing Decisions -- Accounting for Byproducts -- Concepts in Action: Byproduct Costing Keeps Wendy's Chili Profitable ... and on the Menu -- Production Method: Byproducts Recognized at Time Production Is Completed -- Sales Method: Byproducts Recognized at Time of Sale -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 17. Process Costing -- ExxonMobil and Accounting Differences in the Oil Patch -- Illustrating Process Costing -- Case 1 Process Costing with No Beginning or Ending Work-in-Process Inventory -- Case 2 Process Costing with Zero Beginning and Some Ending Work-in-Process Inventory -- Physical Units and Equivalent Units (Steps 1 and 2) -- Calculation of Product Costs (Steps 3, 4, and 5) -- Journal Entries -- Case 3 Process Costing with Some Beginning and Some Ending Work-in-Process Inventory -- Weighted-Average Method -- First-In, First-Out Method -- Comparison of Weighted-Average and FIFO Methods -- Transferred-In Costs in Process Costing -- Transferred-In Costs and the Weighted-Average Method -- Transferred-In Costs and the FIFO Method -- Points to Remember About Transferred-In Costs -- Hybrid Costing Systems -- Overview of Operation-Costing Systems -- Concepts in Action: Hybrid Costing for Customized Shoes at Adidas -- Illustration of an Operation-Costing System -- Journal Entries -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Standard-Costing Method of Process Costing -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 18. Spoilage, Rework, and Scrap -- Rework Delays the Boeing Dreamliner by Three Years -- Defining Spoilage, Rework and Scrap -- Two Types of Spoilage -- Normal Spoilage -- Abnormal Spoilage -- Spoilage in Process Costing Using Weighted-Average and FIFO -- Count All Spoilage -- Five-Step Procedure for Process Costing with Spoilage -- Weighted-Average Method and Spoilage -- FIFO Method and Spoilage -- Journal Entries -- Inspection Points and Allocating Costs of Normal Spoilage -- Job Costing and Spoilage -- Job Costing and Rework -- Accounting for Scrap -- Recognizing Scrap at the Time of Its Sale -- Recognizing Scrap at the Time of Its Production -- Concepts in Action: Managing Waste and Environmental Costs at KB Home -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Standard-Costing Method and Spoilage -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 19. Balanced Scorecard: Quality, Time, and the Theory of Constraints -- Toyota Plans Changes After Millions of Defective Cars Are Recalled -- Quality as a Competitive Tool -- The Financial Perspective: Costs of Quality -- The Customer Perspective: Nonfinancial Measures of Customer Satisfaction -- The Internal-Business-Process Perspective: Analyzing Quality Problems and Improving Quality -- Nonfinancial Measures of Internal-Business-Process Quality -- The Learning-and-Growth Perspective: Quality Improvements -- Making Decisions and Evaluating Quality Performance -- Time as a Competitive Tool -- Customer-Response Time and On-Time Performance -- Bottlenecks and Time Drivers -- Concepts in Action: Overcoming Wireless Data Bottlenecks Relevant Revenues and Relevant Costs of Time -- Theory of Constraints and Throughput-Margin Analysis -- Managing Bottlenecks -- Balanced Scorecard and Time-Related Measures -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 20. Inventory Management, Just-in-Time, and Simplified Costing Methods -- Costco Aggressively Manages Inventory to Thrive in Tough Times -- Inventory Management in Retail Organizations -- Costs Associated with Goods for Sale -- Economic-Order-Quantity Decision Model -- When to Order, Assuming Certainty -- Safety Stock -- Estimating Inventory-Related Relevant Costs and Their Effects -- Considerations in Obtaining Estimates of Relevant Costs -- Cost of a Prediction Error -- Conflict Between the EOQ Decision Model and Managers' Performance Evaluation -- Just-in-Time Purchasing -- JIT Purchasing and EOQ Model Parameters -- Relevant Costs of JIT Purchasing -- Supplier Evaluation and Relevant Costs of Quality and Timely Deliveries -- JIT Purchasing, Planning and Control, and Supply-Chain Analysis -- Inventory Management, MRP and JIT Production -- Materials Requirements Planning -- JIT Production -- Features of JIT Production Systems -- Financial Benefits of JIT and Relevant Costs -- JIT in Service Industries -- Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems -- Concepts in Action: After the Encore: Just-in-Time Live Concert Recordings -- Performance Measures and Control in JIT Production -- Effect of JIT Systems on Product Costing -- Backflush Costing -- Simplified Normal or Standard Costing Systems -- Accounting for Variances -- Special Considerations in Backflush Costing -- Lean Accounting -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 21. Capital Budgeting and Cost Analysis -- Target's Capital Budgeting Hits the Bull's-Eye -- Stages of Capital Budgeting -- Discounted Cash Flow -- Net Present Value Method -- Internal Rate-of-Return Method -- Comparison of Net Present Value and Internal Rate-of-Return Methods -- Sensitivity Analysis -- Payback Method -- Uniform Cash Flows -- Nonuniform Cash Flows -- Accrual Accounting Rate-of-Return Method -- Relevant Cash Flows in Discounted Cash Flow Analysis -- Relevant After-Tax Flows -- Categories of Cash Flows -- Project Management and Performance Evaluation -- Post-Investment Audits -- Performance Evaluation -- Strategic Considerations in Capital Budgeting -- Investment in Research and Development -- Customer Value and Capital Budgeting -- Concepts in Action: international Capital Budgeting at Disney -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Appendix: Capital Budgeting and Inflation -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- Answers to Exercises in Compound Interest (Exercise 21-16) -- 22. Management Control Systems, Transfer Pricing, and Multinational Considerations -- Symantec Wins $545 million Opinion in Transfer Pricing Dispute with the IRS -- Management Control Systems -- Formal and Informal Systems -- Effective Management Control -- Decentralization -- Benefits of Decentralization -- Costs of Decentralization -- Comparison of Benefits and Costs -- Decentralization in Multinational Companies -- Choices About Responsibility Centers -- Transfer Pricing -- Criteria for Evaluating Transfer Prices -- Calculating Transfer Prices -- An Illustration of Transfer Pricing -- Market-Based Transfer Prices -- Perfectly-Competitive-Market Case -- Distress Prices -- Imperfect Competition -- Cost-Based Transfer Prices -- Full-Cost Bases -- Variable-Cost Bases -- Hybrid Transfer Prices -- Prorating the Difference Between Maximum and Minimum Transfer Prices -- Negotiated Pricing -- Dual Pricing -- A General Guideline for Transfer-Pricing Situations -- Multinational Transfer Pricing and Tax Considerations -- Transfer Pricing for Tax Minimization -- Concepts in Action: Transfer Pricing Dispute Temporarily Stops the Flow of Fiji Water -- Transfer Prices Designed for Multiple Objectives -- Additional Issues in Transfer Pricing -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem -- 23. Performance Measurement, Compensation, and Multinational Considerations -- Misalignment Between CEO Compensation and Performance at AIG -- Financial and Nonfinancial Performance Measures -- Accounting-Based Measures for Business Units -- Return on Investment -- Residual Income -- Economic Value Added -- Return on Sales -- Comparing Performance Measures -- Choosing the Details of the Performance Measures -- Alternative Time Horizons -- Alternative Definitions of Investment -- Alternative Asset Measurements -- Target Levels of Performance and Feedback -- Choosing Target Levels of Performance -- Choosing the Timing of Feed back -- Performance Measurement in Multinational Companies -- Calculating the Foreign Division's ROI in the Foreign Currency -- Calculating the Foreign Division's ROI in U.S. Dollars -- Distinction Between Managers and Organization Units -- The Basic Trade-Off: Creating Incentives Versus Imposing Risk -- Intensity of Incentives and Financial and Nonfinancial Measurements -- Benchmarks and Relative Performance Evaluation -- Performance Measures at the Individual Activity Level -- Executive Performance Measures and Compensation -- Concepts in Action: Government Bailouts, Record Profits, and the 2009 Wall Street Compensation Dilemma -- Strategy and Levers of Control -- Boundary Systems -- Belief Systems -- Interactive Control Systems -- Problem for Self-Study -- Decision Points -- Terms to Learn -- Assignment Material -- Questions -- Exercises -- Problems -- Collaborative Learning Problem.

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