AIDS update 2009 : an annual overview of acquired immune deficiency syndrome / Gerald J. Stine.
By: Stine, Gerald James.Material type: TextPublisher: Boston, MA : McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009Edition: 1st Ed.Description: xviii, 510 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.Other title: Annual overview of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.Subject(s): AIDS (Disease) | HIV (Viruses) | HIV infectionsDDC classification: 616.9792
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|Books||Centeral Library Second Floor - Pharmacy||616.9792 S.G.A 2009 (Browse shelf)||Available||14662|
Includes bibliographical references (p. 447-467) and index.
About the author -- Quarter century of AIDS and counting -- AIDS update 2008 -- Preface -- Introduction: Histories of global pandemics, AIDS, its place in history, overview of HIV/AIDS, international AIDS conferences and means of remembering-the AIDS quilt, candlelight memorial, and world AIDS day --1: AIDS: Defining the disease and finding its cause -- New millennium -- AIDS: a disease or a syndrome? -- First reaction to AIDS: denial -- What causes AIDS? -- How does HIV cause AIDS? -- Centers for disease control and prevention reports -- Discovery of the AIDS virus -- Defining the illness: AIDS surveillance -- Summary -- Review questions -- 2: What causes AIDS: origin of the AIDS virus -- Cause of AIDS: the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -- Evidence that HIV causes AIDS -- Origin of HIV: the AIDS virus -- Summary on the origin of HIV -- Summary -- Review questions -- 3: Biological characteristics of the AIDS virus -- Viruses need a host cell in order to reproduce -- Viruses are parasites -- Viruses specific to cell type -- Retroviruses -- Description of HIV; how it attaches to a host cell and buds out of the cell -- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): its life cycle -- HIV life cycle -- How HIV escapes the infected cell -- Basic genetic structure of retroviral genomes -- Genetic revolution -- Formation of genetic recombination in HIV -- Distinct genotypes (subtypes/clades) of HIV-1 worldwide based on ENV and GAG proteins -- Summary -- Review questions -- 4: Anti-HIV therapy -- Anti-HIV therapy -- Eradication update-2007 -- Antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs with FDA-approval -- HIV medicine chest: ART drugs receiving FDA approval -- FDA-approved nucleoside/non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors -- Use of non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors -- FDA-approved protease inhibitors -- Protease inhibitors -- Entry inhibitors and problems -- Development and selection of HIV drug-resistant mutants -- Development of HIV drug resistance to protease inhibitors -- How combination drug therapy can reduce the chance of HIV drug resistance -- HIV treatment regimen failure -- Viral load: its relationship to HIV disease and AIDS -- Medical complications associated with anti-HIV drug therapies (ART) -- Smart trial was canceled on January 11, 2006 -- Disclaimer -- Summary -- Some AIDS therapy information hotlines -- Review questions -- 5: Immunology of HIV disease/AIDS -- Immune system -- Human lymphocytes: T cells and B cells -- Antibodies and HIV disease -- Immune system dysfunction -- Original antigenic sin -- Search for additional receptors (coreceptors) to CD4: FUSIN or CXCKR-4 (R-4) -- CCKR-5 (R-5) receptor -- Emergence of HIV strains that vary in their lethal abilities -- In search of genetic resistance to HIV infection -- T4 Cell depletion and immune suppression -- Impact of T4 cell depletion -- Role of monocytes and macrophages in HIV infection -- Where do T4 or CD4+ cells become HIV infected? -- Summary -- Review questions -- 6: Opportunistic infections and cancers associated with HIV disease/AIDS -- What is an opportunistic disease? -- Prevalence of opportunistic diseases -- Prophylaxis against opportunistic infections -- Opportunistic infections in HIV-infected people -- TB and HIV -- Cancer or malignancy in AIDS patients -- Disclaimer -- Summary -- Review questions -- 7: Profile of biological indicators for HIV disease and progression to AIDS -- HIV disease defined -- Stages of HIV disease (without drug therapy) -- HIV disease without symptoms, with symptoms, and AIDS -- Aspects of HIV infection -- Production of HIV-specific antibodies -- Prognostic biological markers related to AIDS progression -- HIV infection of the central nervous system (CNS) -- Neuropathies in HIV disease/AIDS patients -- Pediatric clinical signs and symptoms -- Summary -- Review questions --
8: Epidemiology and transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus -- We must stop HIV transmission now! -- Epidemiology of HIV infection -- Transmission of two strains of HIV (HIV-1/HIV-2) -- Is HIV transmitted by insects? -- HIV transmission -- HIV transmission in family/household settings -- Noncasual transmission -- Gay men putting themselves at high risk for HIV infection -- Problem -- Injection-drug users and HIV transmission -- United States: heterosexual injection-drug use (IDU) -- Cesarean section -- Conclusion -- National AIDS resources -- Summary -- Review questions -- 9: Preventing the transmission of HIV -- AIDS generation: "I knew everything about it, and I still got it!" -- Prevention, not treatment, is the least expensive and most effective way to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS -- Global prevention -- Antiretroviral drugs having an impact on prevention, but we can't treat our way out of this pandemic -- Advancing HIV prevention: new strategies for a changing epidemic -- Preventing the transmission of HIV -- Sexual risk taking depends on sexual activity -- New rules to an old game: promoting safer sex -- Male condom -- Female condom or femidom (vaginal pouch) -- Alternative to condoms: vaginal microbicides -- Injection-drug use and HIV transmission: the twin epidemics -- HIV prevention for injection-drug users -- Prevention of blood and blood product HIV transmission -- Infection control procedures -- Sexual partner notification: disclosure -- US federal government has now adopted partner notification as its cornerstone in its effort to help control the spread of HIV -- Vaccine development and its role in prevention -- Types of experimental HIV vaccines -- DNA vaccine -- Coverage, or who gets the vaccine -- Impact summary of an HIV vaccine -- Problems in the search for HIV vaccine -- Summary -- Review questions -- 10: Prevalence of HIV infections, AIDS cases, and deaths among select groups in the United States and in other countries -- Word about HIV/AIDS data -- Millennium: year 2008 -- Formula for estimating HIV infections -- Behavioral risk groups and statistical evaluation -- Estimates of HIV infection and future AIDS cases -- Newly infected -- Shape of the HIV pandemic: United States -- Shape of AIDS pandemic: United States -- Estimates of deaths and years of potential life lost due to AIDS in the United States -- Prevalence and impact of HIV/AIDS -- Connected but separate -- Workforce-South Africa: some examples -- Education: teachers and students-South Africa and some countries in Southern Africa -- Other HIV/AIDS time bombs: Asia, India, China, and Russia -- Summary -- Review questions -- 11: Prevalence of HIV infection and AIDS cases among women and children -- AIDS is defining the lives of millions of women -- Every day a tragedy -- Triple jeopardy -- Annual international women's day-March 8 -- Women: AIDS and HIV infections worldwide -- Women: HIV-positive and AIDS cases-United States -- Childbearing women -- Internet -- Pediatric HIV-positive and AIDS cases-United States -- Orphaned children due to HIV infection and AIDS -- Phenomenon of AIDS orphans -- Summary -- Review questions -- 12: Prevalence of HIV infection and AIDS among young adults, ages 13 to 24 -- Global HIV infections in young adults -- Addressing the AIDS pandemic among young adults -- How large is the young adult population in the United States? -- HIV/AIDS won't affect us! -- Estimate of HIV-infected and AIDS cases among young adults in the United States -- Summary -- Internet -- Other useful sources -- Review questions -- 13: Testing for human immunodeficiency virus -- Determining the presence of antibody produced when HIV is present -- Requests for HIV testing -- Reasons for HIV testing -- Laboratory methods for detecting HIV -- ELISA HIV antibody test -- Western blot assay -- New ELISA antibody testing and viral load procedures reveal early versus late HIV infection -- Rapid HIV testing -- FDA approves two home HIV antibody test kits -- Some screening and confirmatory tests for HIV -- Deciding who and when to get an HIV test -- Why is HIV test information necessary? -- Immigration into the United States -- Testing, competency, and informed consent -- Summary -- Review questions -- 14: AIDS and society: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior -- HIV/AIDS is a story in our lifetime -- New millennium and HIV/AIDS -- HIV/AIDS is an unusual social disease -- AIDS is here to stay -- AIDS -- Blame someone, deja vu -- Fear: panic and hysteria over the spread of HIV/AIDS in the United States -- Whom is the general public to believe? -- AIDS education and behavior -- Character of society -- Dealing with discrimination: the Americans with disabilities act -- Federal and private sector financing: creation of an AIDS industry -- US government believes HIV/AIDS is a threat to national security -- Global HIV/AIDS funding for underdeveloped nations -- Forms of US monetary assistance for HIV/AIDS -- Summary -- Review questions -- Answers to review questions -- Glossary -- References -- Index.
From the Publisher: AIDS Update 2008 presents a balanced review of current research and information on HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS. AIDS Update 2008 places this discussion within a biological, medical, social, economic and legal framework, helping readers to more fully understand this modern-day pandemic.