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Nanotechnology : consequences for human health and the environment / editors, R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison.

By: Hester, Ronald. EContributor(s): Harrison, Roy M, 1948- | Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)Material type: TextTextSeries: Issues in environmental science and Technology ; v. 24Publication details: Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, c2007Edition: 1st edDescription: xiii, 134 p. : ill. ; 24 cmISBN: 9780854042166 (hard); 0854042164 (hard)Subject(s): Nanotechnology -- Health aspects | Nanotechnology -- Environmental aspectsDDC classification: 620.5 LOC classification: T174.7 | .N3736 2007
Contents:
Current and Future Applications of Nanotechnology Barry Park 1 Introduction 1 1..l History 1 1.2 Definitions 1 1.3 Investment 2 2 Technology 2 2.1 Nanomaterials 2 2.2 Manufacturing Processes 3 2.3 Product Characteristics 3 3 Types of Nanomaterials 4 3.1 Carbon 4 3.2 Inorganic Nanotubes 6 3.3 Metals 7 3.4 Metal Oxides 7 3.5 Clays 10 3.6 Quantum Dots 11 3.7 Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy 11 3.8 Dendrimers 12 4 Bio Applications 12 5 Nanocatalysts 12 6 Nanotechnology Reports 13 6.1 Forbes/Wolfe Nanotech Reports 13 6.2 Woodrow Wilson 13 7 Future Opportunities 14 7.1 Nanoroadmap 14 7.2 SusChem 14 7.3 Lux Research Market Forecast 15 8 Nanomaterials Companies 15 9 Future 15 References 16 Nanoparticles in the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments Jamie Lead 1 Introduction 19 2 Overview of Current Knowledge 20 3 Fate and Behaviour in Natural Aquatic Systems 26 "3.1 Natural and Engineered Nanoparticle Interactions 27 3.2 Structural Determination and Analysis 29 "3.3 Interactions with Pollutants, Pathogens and Nutrients 29 3.4 Effects on Pollutant and Pathogen Fate and Behaviour 29 4 Issues to be Addressed 30 4.1 Sources and Sinks of Nanoparticles 30 4.2 Free and Fixed Engineered Nanoparticles 31 4.3 Nanoparticle Interactions with Naturally Occurring Material 31 4.4 Nanoparticles as Pollutants 31 4.5 Transport of Nanoparticles 31 4.6 Nanoparticles as Vectors of Pollution 32 5 Conclusions 32 References 32 Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere Roy Harrison 1 Introduction 35 2 Sources of Atmospheric Nanoparticles 35 2.1 Primary Emissions 35 2.2 Secondary Particles 36 2.3 Formation of Nanoparticles During Diesel Exhaust Dilution 37 3 Particle Size Distributions 39 3.1 Source Strength of Traffic Particles 40 3.2 Emissions from Non-Traffic Sources 41 4 Measurement of Nanoparticles in Roadside Air 41 5 Transformation and Transport of Ultrafine Particles 43 6 Measurements of Particle Number Concentration in the Atmosphere 44 7 Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Nanoparticles 45 8 Indoor/Outdoor Relationships of Nanoparticles 46 9 Conclusions 47 References 48 Occupational Exposure to Nanoparticles and Nanotubes David Mark I Introduction 50 2 Scientific Framework for Assessing Exposure to Nanoparticles 51 2.1 Terminology and Definitions 51 2.2 Routes of Exposure 51 2.3 Metric to be used for Assessing Exposure to Airborne Nanoparticles 53 3 Review of Methods for Assessing Exposure to Nanoparticles 55 3.1 General 55 3.2 Mass Concentration 56 3.3 Number Concentration 61 3.4 Surface Area Concentrations 62 3.5 Nanoparticle Size Distribution Measurement 64 3.6 *Particle Sampling Techniques for Characterisation 68 3.7 Do Nanotubes Require Special Techniques? 69 3.8 Sampling Strategy Issues 70 4 Review of Reported Measurements of Exposure to Nanoparticles 71 4.1 Introduction 71 4.2 Measurements of Nanoparticle Exposures in "Existing Industries 72 4.3 Measurements of Nanoparticle Exposures in New Nanotechnology Processes 75 5 Discussion 76 References 78 Toxicological Properties of Nanoparticles and Nanotubes Ken Donaldson and Vicki Stone I Introduction 81 2 Environmental Air Pollution Particles 81 2.1 Effects of Environmental Particles 81 2.2 Nanoparticles as the Drivers of Environment Particle Effects 82 3 Could Cardiovascular Effects of PM be Due to CDNP? 84 4 Is the Environmental Nanoparticle Paradigm Applicable to Engineered NPs? 86 4.1 The Nature of Newer Manufactured Nanoparticles 86 4.2 Carbon Black and TiO2 86 4.3 Nanoparticles and the Brain 87 4.4 New Engineered NPs and the Cardiovascular System 87 4.5 Carbon Nanotubes 87 4.6 Fullerenes 89 4.7 Quantum Dots 90 4.8 Other Nanoparticles 90 5 Conclusion 91 References 92 Human Effects of Nanoparticle Exposure Lang Tran, Rob Aitken, Jon Ayres, Ken Donaldson and Fintan Hurley 1 The Regulatory Issues 102 1.1 Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies per se 102 1.2 Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies in Context of Dangerous Substances Generally 103 2 Current Issues and Knowledge Gaps 103 2.1 Toxicology of Nanoparticles 104 2.2 NP Characterisation 106 2.3 Epidemiology 107 2.4 Human Challenge Studies 110 3 Discussion: Risk Assessment of Engineered NPs 111 References 113 Nanoparticle Safety - A Perspective from the United States Andrew D. Maynard 1 Introduction 118 2 The US National Nanotechnology Initiative 119 3 Federal Government Activities in Support of "Safe" Nanotechnology 120 4 Industry and Other Non-government Activities in Support of "Safe" Nanotechnology 124 5 Looking to the Future - Ensuring the Development of "Safe" Nanotechnology 125 References 129
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Books Books Centeral Library
Second Floor - Biotechnology
663.35 H.R.N 2007 (Browse shelf (Opens below)) Available 16222

Includes index.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

Current and Future Applications of Nanotechnology
Barry Park
1 Introduction 1
1..l History 1
1.2 Definitions 1
1.3 Investment 2
2 Technology 2
2.1 Nanomaterials 2
2.2 Manufacturing Processes 3
2.3 Product Characteristics 3
3 Types of Nanomaterials 4
3.1 Carbon 4
3.2 Inorganic Nanotubes 6
3.3 Metals 7
3.4 Metal Oxides 7
3.5 Clays 10
3.6 Quantum Dots 11
3.7 Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy 11
3.8 Dendrimers 12
4 Bio Applications 12
5 Nanocatalysts 12
6 Nanotechnology Reports 13
6.1 Forbes/Wolfe Nanotech Reports 13
6.2 Woodrow Wilson 13
7 Future Opportunities 14
7.1 Nanoroadmap 14
7.2 SusChem 14
7.3 Lux Research Market Forecast 15
8 Nanomaterials Companies 15
9 Future 15
References 16
Nanoparticles in the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments
Jamie Lead
1 Introduction 19
2 Overview of Current Knowledge 20
3 Fate and Behaviour in Natural Aquatic Systems 26
"3.1 Natural and Engineered Nanoparticle Interactions 27
3.2 Structural Determination and Analysis 29
"3.3 Interactions with Pollutants, Pathogens and
Nutrients 29
3.4 Effects on Pollutant and Pathogen Fate and
Behaviour 29
4 Issues to be Addressed 30
4.1 Sources and Sinks of Nanoparticles 30
4.2 Free and Fixed Engineered Nanoparticles 31
4.3 Nanoparticle Interactions with Naturally
Occurring Material 31
4.4 Nanoparticles as Pollutants 31
4.5 Transport of Nanoparticles 31
4.6 Nanoparticles as Vectors of Pollution 32
5 Conclusions 32
References 32
Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere
Roy Harrison
1 Introduction 35
2 Sources of Atmospheric Nanoparticles 35
2.1 Primary Emissions 35
2.2 Secondary Particles 36
2.3 Formation of Nanoparticles During Diesel
Exhaust Dilution 37
3 Particle Size Distributions 39
3.1 Source Strength of Traffic Particles 40
3.2 Emissions from Non-Traffic Sources 41
4 Measurement of Nanoparticles in Roadside Air 41
5 Transformation and Transport of Ultrafine Particles 43
6 Measurements of Particle Number Concentration in the
Atmosphere 44
7 Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Nanoparticles 45
8 Indoor/Outdoor Relationships of Nanoparticles 46
9 Conclusions 47
References 48
Occupational Exposure to Nanoparticles and Nanotubes
David Mark
I Introduction 50
2 Scientific Framework for Assessing Exposure to
Nanoparticles 51
2.1 Terminology and Definitions 51
2.2 Routes of Exposure 51
2.3 Metric to be used for Assessing Exposure to
Airborne Nanoparticles 53
3 Review of Methods for Assessing Exposure to
Nanoparticles 55
3.1 General 55
3.2 Mass Concentration 56
3.3 Number Concentration 61
3.4 Surface Area Concentrations 62
3.5 Nanoparticle Size Distribution Measurement 64
3.6 *Particle Sampling Techniques for Characterisation 68
3.7 Do Nanotubes Require Special Techniques? 69
3.8 Sampling Strategy Issues 70
4 Review of Reported Measurements of Exposure to
Nanoparticles 71
4.1 Introduction 71
4.2 Measurements of Nanoparticle Exposures in
"Existing Industries 72
4.3 Measurements of Nanoparticle Exposures in
New Nanotechnology Processes 75
5 Discussion 76
References 78
Toxicological Properties of Nanoparticles and Nanotubes
Ken Donaldson and Vicki Stone
I Introduction 81
2 Environmental Air Pollution Particles 81
2.1 Effects of Environmental Particles 81
2.2 Nanoparticles as the Drivers of Environment
Particle Effects 82
3 Could Cardiovascular Effects of PM be Due to CDNP? 84
4 Is the Environmental Nanoparticle Paradigm
Applicable to Engineered NPs? 86
4.1 The Nature of Newer Manufactured Nanoparticles 86
4.2 Carbon Black and TiO2 86
4.3 Nanoparticles and the Brain 87
4.4 New Engineered NPs and the Cardiovascular
System 87
4.5 Carbon Nanotubes 87
4.6 Fullerenes 89
4.7 Quantum Dots 90
4.8 Other Nanoparticles 90
5 Conclusion 91
References 92
Human Effects of Nanoparticle Exposure
Lang Tran, Rob Aitken, Jon Ayres, Ken Donaldson and Fintan Hurley
1 The Regulatory Issues 102
1.1 Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies per se 102
1.2 Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies in Context of
Dangerous Substances Generally 103
2 Current Issues and Knowledge Gaps 103
2.1 Toxicology of Nanoparticles 104
2.2 NP Characterisation 106
2.3 Epidemiology 107
2.4 Human Challenge Studies 110
3 Discussion: Risk Assessment of Engineered NPs 111
References 113
Nanoparticle Safety - A Perspective from the United States
Andrew D. Maynard
1 Introduction 118
2 The US National Nanotechnology Initiative 119
3 Federal Government Activities in Support of "Safe"
Nanotechnology 120
4 Industry and Other Non-government Activities in
Support of "Safe" Nanotechnology 124
5 Looking to the Future - Ensuring the Development of
"Safe" Nanotechnology 125
References 129

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